Additional information provided by Procockpit.
AIM 7-5-1. Accident Cause Factors
a. The 10 most frequent cause factors for general aviation accidents that involve the pilot-in-command are:
1. Inadequate preflight preparation and/or planning.
2. Failure to obtain and/or maintain flying speed.
3. Failure to maintain direction control.
4. Improper level off.
5. Failure to see and avoid objects or obstructions.
6. Mismanagement of fuel.
7. Improper inflight decisions or planning.
8. Misjudgment of distance and speed.
9. Selection of unsuitable terrain.
10. Improper operation of flight controls.
b. This list remains relatively stable and points out the need for continued refresher training to establish a
higher level of flight proficiency for all pilots. A part of the FAA's continuing effort to promote increased
aviation safety is the Aviation Safety Program. For information on Aviation Safety Program activities contact your
nearest Flight Standards District Office.
c. Alertness. Be alert at all times, especially when the weather is good. Most pilots pay attention to business
when they are operating in full IFR weather conditions, but strangely, air collisions almost invariably have
occurred under ideal weather conditions. Unlimited visibility appears to encourage a sense of security which is not
at all justified. Considerable information of value may be obtained by listening to advisories being issued in the
terminal area, even though controller workload may prevent a pilot from obtaining individual service.
d. Giving Way. If you think another aircraft is too close to you, give way instead of waiting for the other
pilot to respect the right-of-way to which you may be entitled. It is a lot safer to pursue the right-of-way angle
after you have completed your flight.
7-5-2. VFR in Congested Areas
A high percentage of near midair collisions occur below 8,000 feet AGL and within 30 miles of an airport. When
operating VFR in these highly congested areas, whether you intend to land at an airport within the area or are just
flying through, it is recommended that extra vigilance be maintained and that you monitor an appropriate control
frequency. Normally the appropriate frequency is an approach control frequency. By such monitoring action you can
"get the picture" of the traffic in your area. When the approach controller has radar, radar traffic advisories may
be given to VFR pilots upon request.
AIM, Radar Traffic Information Service, Paragraph 4-1-14.
7-5-3. Obstructions To Flight
a. General. Many structures exist that could significantly affect the safety of your flight when operating below
500 feet AGL, and particularly below 200 feet AGL. While 14 CFR Part 91.119 allows flight below 500 AGL when over
sparsely populated areas or open water, such operations are very dangerous. At and below 200 feet AGL there are
numerous power lines, antenna towers, etc., that are not marked and lighted as obstructions and; therefore, may not
be seen in time to avoid a collision. Notices to Airmen (NOTAM's) are issued on those lighted structures
experiencing temporary light outages. However, some time may pass before the FAA is notified of these outages, and
the NOTAM issued, thus pilot vigilance is imperative.
b. Antenna Towers. Extreme caution should be exercised when flying less than 2,000 feet AGL because of numerous
skeletal structures, such as radio and television antenna towers, that exceed 1,000 feet AGL with some extending
higher than 2,000 feet AGL. Most skeletal structures are supported by guy wires which are very difficult to see in
good weather and can be invisible at dusk or during periods of reduced visibility. These wires can extend about
1,500 feet horizontally from a structure; therefore, all skeletal structures should be avoided horizontally by at
least 2,000 feet. Additionally, new towers may not be on your current chart because the information was not
received prior to the printing of the chart.
c. Overhead Wires. Overhead transmission and utility lines often span approaches to runways, natural flyways
such as lakes, rivers, gorges, and canyons, and cross other landmarks pilots frequently follow such as highways,
railroad tracks, etc. As with antenna towers, these high voltage/power lines or the supporting structures of these
lines may not always be readily visible and the wires may be virtually impossible to see under certain conditions.
In some locations, the supporting structures of overhead transmission lines are equipped with unique sequence
flashing white strobe light systems to indicate that there are wires between the structures. However, many power
lines do not require notice to the FAA and, therefore, are not marked and/or lighted. Many of those that do require
notice do not exceed 200 feet AGL or meet the Obstruction Standard of 14 CFR Part 77 and, therefore, are not marked
and/or lighted. All pilots are cautioned to remain extremely vigilant for these power lines or their supporting
structures when following natural flyways or during the approach and landing phase. This is particularly important
for seaplane and/or float equipped aircraft when landing on, or departing from, unfamiliar lakes or rivers.
d. Other Objects/Structures. There are other objects or structures that could adversely affect your flight such
as construction cranes near an airport, newly constructed buildings, new towers, etc. Many of these structures do
not meet charting requirements or may not yet be charted because of the charting cycle. Some structures do not
require obstruction marking and/or lighting and some may not be marked and lighted even though the FAA recommended
7-5-4. Avoid Flight Beneath Unmanned Balloons
a. The majority of unmanned free balloons currently being operated have, extending below them, either a
suspension device to which the payload or instrument package is attached, or a trailing wire antenna, or both. In
many instances these balloon subsystems may be invisible to the pilot until the aircraft is close to the balloon,
thereby creating a potentially dangerous situation. Therefore, good judgment on the part of the pilot dictates that
aircraft should remain well clear of all unmanned free balloons and flight below them should be avoided at all
b. Pilots are urged to report any unmanned free balloons sighted to the nearest FAA ground facility with which
communication is established. Such information will assist FAA ATC facilities to identify and flight follow
unmanned free balloons operating in the airspace.
7-5-5. Mountain Flying
a. Your first experience of flying over mountainous terrain (particularly if most of your flight time has been
over the flatlands of the midwest) could be a never-to-be-forgotten nightmare if proper planning is not done and if
you are not aware of the potential hazards awaiting. Those familiar section lines are not present in the mountains;
those flat, level fields for forced landings are practically nonexistent; abrupt changes in wind direction and
velocity occur; severe updrafts and downdrafts are common, particularly near or above abrupt changes of terrain
such as cliffs or rugged areas; even the clouds look different and can build up with startling rapidity. Mountain
flying need not be hazardous if you follow the recommendations below.
b. File a Flight Plan. Plan your route to avoid topography which would prevent a safe forced landing. The route
should be over populated areas and well known mountain passes. Sufficient altitude should be maintained to permit
gliding to a safe landing in the event of engine failure.
c. Don't fly a light aircraft when the winds aloft, at your proposed altitude, exceed 35 miles per hour. Expect
the winds to be of much greater velocity over mountain passes than reported a few miles from them. Approach
mountain passes with as much altitude as possible. Downdrafts of from 1,500 to 2,000 feet per minute are not
uncommon on the leeward side.
d. Don't fly near or above abrupt changes in terrain. Severe turbulence can be expected, especially in high wind
e. Understand Mountain Obscuration. The term Mountain Obscuration (MTOS) is used to describe a visibility
condition that is distinguished from IFR because ceilings, by definition, are described as "above ground level"
(AGL). In mountainous terrain clouds can form at altitudes significantly higher than the weather reporting station
and at the same time nearby mountaintops may be obscured by low visibility. In these areas the ground level can
also vary greatly over a small area. Beware if operating VFR-on-top. You could be operating closer to the terrain
than you think because the tops of mountains are hidden in a cloud deck below. MTOS areas are identified daily on
The Aviation Weather Center located at www.awc-kc.noaa.gov under Official Forecast Products, AIRMET's (WA),
f. Some canyons run into a dead end. Don't fly so far up a canyon that you get trapped. ALWAYS BE ABLE TO MAKE A
180 DEGREE TURN!
g. VFR flight operations may be conducted at night in mountainous terrain with the application of sound judgment
and common sense. Proper pre-flight planning, giving ample consideration to winds and weather, knowledge of the
terrain and pilot experience in mountain flying are prerequisites for safety of flight. Continuous visual contact
with the surface and obstructions is a major concern and flight operations under an overcast or in the vicinity of
clouds should be approached with extreme caution.
h. When landing at a high altitude field, the same indicated airspeed should be used as at low elevation fields.
Remember: that due to the less dense air at altitude, this same indicated airspeed actually results in higher true
airspeed, a faster landing speed, and more important, a longer landing distance. During gusty wind conditions which
often prevail at high altitude fields, a power approach and power landing is recommended. Additionally, due to the
faster groundspeed, your takeoff distance will increase considerably over that required at low altitudes.
i. Effects of Density Altitude. Performance figures in the aircraft owner's handbook for length of takeoff run,
horsepower, rate of climb, etc., are generally based on standard atmosphere conditions (59 degrees Fahrenheit (15
degrees Celsius), pressure 29.92 inches of mercury) at sea level. However, inexperienced pilots, as well as
experienced pilots, may run into trouble when they encounter an altogether different set of conditions. This is
particularly true in hot weather and at higher elevations. Aircraft operations at altitudes above sea level and at
higher than standard temperatures are commonplace in mountainous areas. Such operations quite often result in a
drastic reduction of aircraft performance capabilities because of the changing air density. Density altitude is a
measure of air density. It is not to be confused with pressure altitude, true altitude or absolute altitude. It is
not to be used as a height reference, but as a determining criteria in the performance capability of an aircraft.
Air density decreases with altitude. As air density decreases, density altitude increases. The further effects of
high temperature and high humidity are cumulative, resulting in an increasing high density altitude condition. High
density altitude reduces all aircraft performance parameters. To the pilot, this means that the normal horsepower
output is reduced, propeller efficiency is reduced and a higher true airspeed is required to sustain the aircraft
throughout its operating parameters. It means an increase in runway length requirements for takeoff and landings,
and decreased rate of climb. An average small airplane, for example, requiring 1,000 feet for takeoff at sea level
under standard atmospheric conditions will require a takeoff run of approximately 2,000 feet at an operational
altitude of 5,000 feet.
A turbo-charged aircraft engine provides some slight advantage in that it provides sea level horsepower up to a
specified altitude above sea level.
1. Density Altitude Advisories. At airports with elevations of 2,000 feet and higher, control towers and FSS's
will broadcast the advisory "Check Density Altitude" when the temperature reaches a predetermined level. These
advisories will be broadcast on appropriate tower frequencies or, where available, ATIS. FSS's will broadcast these
advisories as a part of Local Airport Advisory, and on TWEB.
2. These advisories are provided by air traffic facilities, as a reminder to pilots that high temperatures and
high field elevations will cause significant changes in aircraft characteristics. The pilot retains the
responsibility to compute density altitude, when appropriate, as a part of preflight duties.
All FSS's will compute the current density altitude upon request.
j. Mountain Wave. Many pilots go all their lives without understanding what a mountain wave is. Quite a few have
lost their lives because of this lack of understanding. One need not be a licensed meteorologist to understand the
mountain wave phenomenon.
1. Mountain waves occur when air is being blown over a mountain range or even the ridge of a sharp bluff area.
As the air hits the upwind side of the range, it starts to climb, thus creating what is generally a smooth updraft
which turns into a turbulent downdraft as the air passes the crest of the ridge. From this point, for many miles
downwind, there will be a series of downdrafts and updrafts. Satellite photos of the Rockies have shown mountain
waves extending as far as 700 miles downwind of the range. Along the east coast area, such photos of the
Appalachian chain have picked up the mountain wave phenomenon over a hundred miles eastward. All it takes to form a
mountain wave is wind blowing across the range at 15 knots or better at an intersection angle of not less than 30
2. Pilots from flatland areas should understand a few things about mountain waves in order to stay out of
trouble. When approaching a mountain range from the upwind side (generally the west), there will usually be a
smooth updraft; therefore, it is not quite as dangerous an area as the lee of the range. From the leeward side, it
is always a good idea to add an extra thousand feet or so of altitude because downdrafts can exceed the climb
capability of the aircraft. Never expect an updraft when approaching a mountain chain from the leeward. Always be
prepared to cope with a downdraft and turbulence.
3. When approaching a mountain ridge from the downwind side, it is recommended that the ridge be approached at
approximately a 45 degree angle to the horizontal direction of the ridge. This permits a safer retreat from the
ridge with less stress on the aircraft should severe turbulence and downdraft be experienced. If severe turbulence
is encountered, simultaneously reduce power and adjust pitch until aircraft approaches maneuvering speed, then
adjust power and trim to maintain maneuvering speed and fly away from the turbulent area.
7-5-6. Use of Runway Half-way Signs at Unimproved Airports
When installed, runway half-way signs provide the pilot with a reference point to judge takeoff acceleration
trends. Assuming that the runway length is appropriate for takeoff (considering runway condition and slope,
elevation, aircraft weight, wind, and temperature), typical takeoff acceleration should allow the airplane to reach
70 percent of lift-off airspeed by the midpoint of the runway. The "rule of thumb" is that should airplane
acceleration not allow the airspeed to reach this value by the midpoint, the takeoff should be aborted, as it may
not be possible to liftoff in the remaining runway.
Several points are important when considering using this "rule of thumb":
a. Airspeed indicators in small airplanes are not required to be evaluated at speeds below stalling, and may not
be usable at 70 percent of liftoff airspeed.
b. This "rule of thumb" is based on a uniform surface condition. Puddles, soft spots, areas of tall and/or wet
grass, loose gravel, etc., may impede acceleration or even cause deceleration. Even if the airplane achieves 70
percent of liftoff airspeed by the midpoint, the condition of the remainder of the runway may not allow further
acceleration. The entire length of the runway should be inspected prior to takeoff to ensure a usable surface.
c. This "rule of thumb" applies only to runway required for actual liftoff. In the event that obstacles affect
the takeoff climb path, appropriate distance must be available after liftoff to accelerate to best angle of climb
speed and to clear the obstacles. This will, in effect, require the airplane to accelerate to a higher speed by
midpoint, particularly if the obstacles are close to the end of the runway. In addition, this technique does not
take into account the effects of upslope or tailwinds on takeoff performance. These factors will also require
greater acceleration than normal and, under some circumstances, prevent takeoff entirely.
d. Use of this "rule of thumb" does not alleviate the pilot's responsibility to comply with applicable Federal
Aviation Regulations, the limitations and performance data provided in the FAA approved Airplane Flight Manual
(AFM), or, in the absence of an FAA approved AFM, other data provided by the aircraft manufacturer.
In addition to their use during takeoff, runway half-way signs offer the pilot increased awareness of his or her
position along the runway during landing operations.
7-5-7. Seaplane Safety
a. Acquiring a seaplane class rating affords access to many areas not available to landplane pilots. Adding a
seaplane class rating to your pilot certificate can be relatively uncomplicated and inexpensive. However, more
effort is required to become a safe, efficient, competent "bush" pilot. The natural hazards of the backwoods have
given way to modern man-made hazards. Except for the far north, the available bodies of water are no longer the
exclusive domain of the airman. Seaplane pilots must be vigilant for hazards such as electric power lines, power,
sail and rowboats, rafts, mooring lines, water skiers, swimmers, etc.
b. Seaplane pilots must have a thorough understanding of the right-of-way rules as they apply to aircraft versus
other vessels. Seaplane pilots are expected to know and adhere to both the U.S. Coast Guard's (USCG) Navigation
Rules, International-Inland, and 14 CFR Section 91.115, Right-of-Way Rules; Water Operations. The navigation rules
of the road are a set of collision avoidance rules as they apply to aircraft on the water. A seaplane is considered
a vessel when on the water for the purposes of these collision avoidance rules. In general, a seaplane on the water
shall keep well clear of all vessels and avoid impeding their navigation. The CFR requires, in part, that aircraft
operating on the water ". . . shall, insofar as possible, keep clear of all vessels and avoid impeding their
navigation, and shall give way to any vessel or other aircraft that is given the right-of-way . . . ." This means
that a seaplane should avoid boats and commercial shipping when on the water. If on a collision course, the
seaplane should slow, stop, or maneuver to the right, away from the bow of the oncoming vessel. Also, while on the
surface with an engine running, an aircraft must give way to all nonpowered vessels. Since a seaplane in the water
may not be as maneuverable as one in the air, the aircraft on the water has right-of-way over one in the air, and
one taking off has right-of-way over one landing. A seaplane is exempt from the USCG safety equipment requirements,
including the requirements for Personal Flotation Devices (PFD). Requiring seaplanes on the water to comply with
USCG equipment requirements in addition to the FAA equipment requirements would be an unnecessary burden on
seaplane owners and operators.
c. Unless they are under Federal jurisdiction, navigable bodies of water are under the jurisdiction of the
state, or in a few cases, privately owned. Unless they are specifically restricted, aircraft have as much right to
operate on these bodies of water as other vessels. To avoid problems, check with Federal or local officials in
advance of operating on unfamiliar waters. In addition to the agencies listed in TBL 7-5-1, the nearest Flight
Standards District Office can usually offer some practical suggestions as well as regulatory information. If you
land on a restricted body of water because of an inflight emergency, or in ignorance of the restrictions you have
violated, report as quickly as practical to the nearest local official having jurisdiction and explain your
d. When operating a seaplane over or into remote areas, appropriate attention should be given to survival gear.
Minimum kits are recommended for summer and winter, and are required by law for flight into sparsely settled areas
of Canada and Alaska. Alaska State Department of Transportation and Canadian Ministry of Transport officials can
provide specific information on survival gear requirements. The kit should be assembled in one container and be
easily reachable and preferably floatable.
e. The FAA recommends that each seaplane owner or operator provide flotation gear for occupants any time a
seaplane operates on or near water. 14 CFR Section 91.205(b)(12) requires approved flotation gear for aircraft
operated for hire over water and beyond power-off gliding distance from shore. FAA-approved gear differs from that
required for navigable waterways under USCG rules. FAA-approved life vests are inflatable designs as compared to
the USCG's noninflatable PFD's that may consist of solid, bulky material. Such USCG PFD's are impractical for
seaplanes and other aircraft because they may block passage through the relatively narrow exits available to pilots
and passengers. Life vests approved under Technical Standard Order (TSO) C13E contain fully inflatable
compartments. The wearer inflates the compartments (AFTER exiting the aircraft) primarily by independent CO2
cartridges, with an oral inflation tube as a backup. The flotation gear also contains a water-activated,
self-illuminating signal light. The fact that pilots and passengers can easily don and wear inflatable life vests
(when not inflated) provides maximum effectiveness and allows for unrestricted movement. It is imperative that
passengers are briefed on the location and proper use of available PFD's prior to leaving the dock.
Jurisdictions Controlling Navigable Bodies of Water Authority to Consult For Use of a Body of Water
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service
Local forest ranger
USDA Forest Service
Local forest ranger
U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service
Local park ranger
USDI, Bureau of Indian Affairs
Local Bureau office
State government or state forestry or park service
Local state aviation office for further information
Canadian National and Provincial Parks
Supervised and restricted on an individual basis from province to province and by different departments of the
Canadian government; consult Canadian Flight Information Manual and/or Water Aerodrome Supplement
Park Superintendent in an emergency
f. The FAA recommends that seaplane owners and operators obtain Advisory Circular (AC) 91-69, Seaplane Safety for
14 CFR Part 91 Operations, free from the U.S. Department of Transportation, Subsequent Distribution Office,
SVC-121.23, Ardmore East Business Center, 3341 Q 75th Avenue, Landover, MD 20785; fax: (301) 386-5394. The USCG
Navigation Rules International-Inland (COMDTINSTM 16672.2B) is available for a fee from the Government Printing
Office by facsimile request to (202) 512-2250, and can be ordered using Mastercard or Visa.
7-5-8. Flight Operations in Volcanic Ash
a. Severe volcanic eruptions which send ash into the upper atmosphere occur somewhere around the world several
times each year. Flying into a volcanic ash cloud can be exceedingly dangerous. A B747-200 lost all four engines
after such an encounter and a B747-400 had the same nearly catastrophic experience. Piston-powered aircraft are
less likely to lose power but severe damage is almost certain to ensue after an encounter with a volcanic ash cloud
which is only a few hours old.
b. Most important is to avoid any encounter with volcanic ash. The ash plume may not be visible, especially in
instrument conditions or at night; and even if visible, it is difficult to distinguish visually between an ash
cloud and an ordinary weather cloud. Volcanic ash clouds are not displayed on airborne or ATC radar. The pilot must
rely on reports from air traffic controllers and other pilots to determine the location of the ash cloud and use
that information to remain well clear of the area. Every attempt should be made to remain on the upwind side of the
c. It is recommended that pilots encountering an ash cloud should immediately reduce thrust to idle (altitude
permitting), and reverse course in order to escape from the cloud. Ash clouds may extend for hundreds of miles and
pilots should not attempt to fly through or climb out of the cloud. In addition, the following procedures are
1. Disengage the autothrottle if engaged. This will prevent the autothrottle from increasing engine thrust;
2. Turn on continuous ignition;
3. Turn on all accessory airbleeds including all air conditioning packs, nacelles, and wing anti-ice. This will
provide an additional engine stall margin by reducing engine pressure.
d. The following has been reported by flightcrews who have experienced encounters with volcanic dust clouds:
1. Smoke or dust appearing in the cockpit.
2. An acrid odor similar to electrical smoke.
3. Multiple engine malfunctions, such as compressor stalls, increasing EGT, torching from tailpipe, and
4. At night, St. Elmo's fire or other static discharges accompanied by a bright orange glow in the engine
5. A fire warning in the forward cargo area.
e. It may become necessary to shut down and then restart engines to prevent exceeding EGT limits. Volcanic ash
may block the pitot system and result in unreliable airspeed indications.
f. If you see a volcanic eruption and have not been previously notified of it, you may have been the first
person to observe it. In this case, immediately contact ATC and alert them to the existence of the eruption. If
possible, use the Volcanic Activity Reporting form (VAR) depicted in Appendix 2 of this manual. Items 1 through 8
of the VAR should be transmitted immediately. The information requested in items 9 through 16 should be passed
after landing. If a VAR form is not immediately available, relay enough information to identify the position and
nature of the volcanic activity. Do not become unnecessarily alarmed if there is merely steam or very low-level
eruptions of ash.
g. When landing at airports where volcanic ash has been deposited on the runway, be aware that even a thin layer
of dry ash can be detrimental to braking action. Wet ash on the runway may also reduce effectiveness of braking. It
is recommended that reverse thrust be limited to minimum practical to reduce the possibility of reduced visibility
and engine ingestion of airborne ash.
h. When departing from airports where volcanic ash has been deposited, it is recommended that pilots avoid
operating in visible airborne ash. Allow ash to settle before initiating takeoff roll. It is also recommended that
flap extension be delayed until initiating the before takeoff checklist and that a rolling takeoff be executed to
avoid blowing ash back into the air.
7-5-9. Emergency Airborne Inspection of Other Aircraft
a. Providing airborne assistance to another aircraft may involve flying in very close proximity to that
aircraft. Most pilots receive little, if any, formal training or instruction in this type of flying activity. Close
proximity flying without sufficient time to plan (i.e., in an emergency situation), coupled with the stress
involved in a perceived emergency can be hazardous.
b. The pilot in the best position to assess the situation should take the responsibility of coordinating the
airborne intercept and inspection, and take into account the unique flight characteristics and differences of the
category(s) of aircraft involved.
c. Some of the safety considerations are:
1. Area, direction and speed of the intercept;
2. Aerodynamic effects (i.e., rotorcraft downwash);
3. Minimum safe separation distances;
4. Communications requirements, lost communications procedures, coordination with ATC;
5. Suitability of diverting the distressed aircraft to the nearest safe airport; and
6. Emergency actions to terminate the intercept.
d. Close proximity, inflight inspection of another aircraft is uniquely hazardous. The pilot-in-command of the
aircraft experiencing the problem/emergency must not relinquish control of the situation and/or jeopardize the
safety of their aircraft. The maneuver must be accomplished with minimum risk to both aircraft.
7-5-10. Precipitation Static
a. Precipitation static is caused by aircraft in flight coming in contact with uncharged particles. These
particles can be rain, snow, fog, sleet, hail, volcanic ash, dust; any solid or liquid particles. When the aircraft
strikes these neutral particles the positive element of the particle is reflected away from the aircraft and the
negative particle adheres to the skin of the aircraft. In a very short period of time a substantial negative charge
will develop on the skin of the aircraft. If the aircraft is not equipped with static dischargers, or has an
ineffective static discharger system, when a sufficient negative voltage level is reached, the aircraft may go into
"CORONA." That is, it will discharge the static electricity from the extremities of the aircraft, such as the wing
tips, horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, antenna, propeller tips, etc. This discharge of static
electricity is what you will hear in your headphones and is what we call P-static.
b. A review of pilot reports often shows different symptoms with each problem that is encountered. The following
list of problems is a summary of many pilot reports from many different aircraft. Each problem was caused by
1. Complete loss of VHF communications.
2. Erroneous magnetic compass readings (30 percent in error).
3. High pitched squeal on audio.
4. Motor boat sound on audio.
5. Loss of all avionics in clouds.
6. VLF navigation system inoperative most of the time.
7. Erratic instrument readouts.
8. Weak transmissions and poor receptivity of radios.
9. "St. Elmo's Fire" on windshield.
c. Each of these symptoms is caused by one general problem on the airframe. This problem is the inability of the
accumulated charge to flow easily to the wing tips and tail of the airframe, and properly discharge to the
d. Static dischargers work on the principal of creating a relatively easy path for discharging negative charges
that develop on the aircraft by using a discharger with fine metal points, carbon coated rods, or carbon wicks
rather than wait until a large charge is developed and discharged off the trailing edges of the aircraft that will
interfere with avionics equipment. This process offers approximately 50 decibels (dB) static noise reduction which
is adequate in most cases to be below the threshold of noise that would cause interference in avionics
e. It is important to remember that precipitation static problems can only be corrected with the proper number
of quality static dischargers, properly installed on a properly bonded aircraft. P-static is indeed a problem in
the all weather operation of the aircraft, but there are effective ways to combat it. All possible methods of
reducing the effects of P-static should be considered so as to provide the best possible performance in the flight
f. A wide variety of discharger designs is available on the commercial market. The inclusion of well-designed
dischargers may be expected to improve airframe noise in P-static conditions by as much as 50 dB. Essentially, the
discharger provides a path by which accumulated charge may leave the airframe quietly. This is generally
accomplished by providing a group of tiny corona points to permit onset of corona-current flow at a low aircraft
potential. Additionally, aerodynamic design of dischargers to permit corona to occur at the lowest possible
atmospheric pressure also lowers the corona threshold. In addition to permitting a low-potential discharge, the
discharger will minimize the radiation of radio frequency (RF) energy which accompanies the corona discharge, in
order to minimize effects of RF components at communications and navigation frequencies on avionics performance.
These effects are reduced through resistive attachment of the corona point(s) to the airframe, preserving direct
current connection but attenuating the higher-frequency components of the discharge.
g. Each manufacturer of static dischargers offers information concerning appropriate discharger location on
specific airframes. Such locations emphasize the trailing outboard surfaces of wings and horizontal tail surfaces,
plus the tip of the vertical stabilizer, where charge tends to accumulate on the airframe. Sufficient dischargers
must be provided to allow for current-carrying capacity which will maintain airframe potential below the corona
threshold of the trailing edges.
h. In order to achieve full performance of avionic equipment, the static discharge system will require periodic
maintenance. A pilot knowledgeable of P-static causes and effects is an important element in assuring optimum
performance by early recognition of these types of problems.
7-5-11. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (Laser) Operations
a. Lasers have many applications. Of concern to users of the National Airspace System are those laser events
that may affect pilots, e.g., outdoor laser light shows or demonstrations for entertainment and advertisements at
special events and theme parks. Generally, the beams from these events appear as bright blue-green in color;
however, they may be red, yellow, or white. However, some laser systems produce light which is invisible to the
b. Currently, there are no FAA regulations that specifically address the above-mentioned laser activities.
However, FAA regulations prohibit the disruption of aviation activity by any person on the ground or in the air.
The FAA and the Food and Drug Administration (the Federal agency that has the responsibility to enforce compliance
with Federal requirements for laser systems and laser light show products) are working together to ensure that
operators of these devices do not pose a hazard to aircraft operators.
c. Pilots should be aware that illumination from these laser operations are able to create temporary vision
impairment miles from the actual location. In addition, these operations can produce permanent eye damage. Pilots
should make themselves aware of where these activities are being conducted and avoid these areas if possible.
d. When these activities become known to the FAA, Notices to Airmen (NOTAM's) are issued to inform the aviation
community of the events. Pilots should consult NOTAM's or the Special Notices section of the Airport/Facility
Directory for information regarding these activities.
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